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Airplanes, helicopters, rockets and other vehicles (space shuttles, VTOLs…) need the atmosphere or a rocket motor to support them. One disadvantage of vehicles using other principles to take off than the rocket one is their use only in environments with a sufficient atmospheric pressure of the air. On the other hand, rockets are highly uneconomical which limits substantially their commercial use.
  These drawbacks are, to a considerable degree, resolved by a flying device based on the fact that the propulsive unit is formed by a closed vacuum chamber containing a rotor with the peripheral velocity higher than 8 km/s for the Earth surface in the horizontal plane.


The vertical elevation of this new flying vehicle is based on the same physical principle that allows satellites to orbit the Earth. Satellites do not fall on the Earth because, at velocities over app. 8 km/s, the centrifugal force exceeds the Earth gravity. Let us imagine that this point does not only orbit the Earth but also rotates in the horizontal plane. The vertical centrifugal force acting on the point does not change. The point moves in the tangential plane but also in the horizontal plane with respect to the Earth. The movement in the horizontal plane only causes that, apart from the desired centrifugal force in the vertical direction, there is one more centrifugal force in the horizontal plane. See Picture 1
Picture 1
Points on the rotating disc with the peripheral velocity (v1) are subject to two centrifugal forces, acting in the same ratio which is between the Earth radius (R2) and the disc radius (R1).

Obr 1. Zeme AJ.jpg, 47kB

From the physical point of view, it is important that there is force F2 supporting the disc. Flying occurs at peripheral velocities v1 over app. 8 km/s (the Earth escape velocity). Formula F2 = m (v1 / 8)2 applies. E.g. at the peripheral velocity of 16 km/s, the lifting force is four times the weight of the rotating point (rotor).


Unfortunately, centrifugal force F1 is very important from the technical point of view because it will, due to its immensity, tear any rotating disc made of materials available today.
  The problem lies in finding a technical solution and material that would endure this immense centrifugal force.
  The only material worth considering is the carbon nanotube material which has a hundred times the solidity of the highest-quality steel while weighting only a little more than water. This material is also considered for the possible construction of the cosmic lift.
  The technical solution itself. What will rotate? In Picture 1 is a rotating disc but it is not very convenient as a technical solution. We need as much matter rotating at the rotation circumference as possible. Besides, there is rim connected with the centre that is a shaft in a bearing. Calculations show that this rim with the solidity of nanotubes could endure the load. However, the rim of nanotubes probably cannot be “forged”. Nanotubes do not have the properties of steel.
  Another problem lies in the size. It is practical to increase the radius of rotation because the centrifugal force drops and the performance of the device grows. It is even possible that the gyroplane will only start flying from a certain size of the rotating device. Only then the vertical force exceeds the weight of the rotating device plus other necessary weights (frame, motor, fuel…) and the effective load itself. It can become an insolvable technical problem to rotate a disc with the radius of several metres (tens of metres).
  There is another solution: to have a closed oval tube, to extract the air from it and to let matter rotate in the tube at the velocity over 8 km/s. See Picture 2.
Picture 2
Obr 2. s jednim vencem AJ.jpg, 82kB

What should rotate in the tube? Superconductive material. We need the material to rotate in the tube and, understandably, not to touch the wall of the tube. Electromagnetic field will be generated in the tube, repelling the superconductive matter from the wall of the tube and giving the matter the required velocity over 8 km/s. To put it simply, it would look like this: particles of the superconductive material are “poured” in the chamber, and the electromagnetic field rotates them and does not allow them to touch the wall.
  The thickness of this rotating poured rim will probably be measured in hundredths and tenths of mm. A smaller thickness means less centrifugal force. It is another advantage of this solution. The thickness of the poured rim can be adjusted using the resulting centrifugal force. At the beginning of the complicated development, the thickness will be smaller. We will get less centrifugal force so that the proposed technical solution endures; on the other hand, the vertical centrifugal force will be smaller, too. Further development will allow us to extend the rim and lifting force. To select the thickness of the rim, it will be crucial how much pressure can be endured by the electromagnetic field repelling the superconductive particles from the wall of the tube. Moreover, the solidity of the tube itself, made of nanotubes, must be taken into account.
  The shape of the tube. As shown in Picture 2, the shape need not be rotational only but oval as well. Then, the “unwanted” centrifugal forces would be generated in the curves, not in the straight parts. That would represent a structural advantage because the strong magnetic field would only be in the curves. To generate such a field, another device will be needed, increasing the weight of the gyroplane. The straight parts would require a weaker magnetic field and a lighter apparatus for generating the electromagnetic field.
  What a gyroplane would probably look like. It would resemble a cigar or an airship. The propulsive unit is shown in Picture 3. There would be no empty space; it would be thickened with the inserted tubes. As already mentioned, the thickness of the rotating superconductive material would be several tenths of mm, then there are a few millimetres of the chamber of nanotubes and the space necessary for generating the magnetic field. The total thickness of the tube is expected to reach several centimetres. In this case, the gyroplane with the radius of the outer tube in metres would contain several tens of tubes. Due to the structural limits, the lifting force of one tube need not be sufficient but the required force could be achieved by thickening. Besides, thickening the matter in nanotubes would help to overcome the immense centrifugal forces.
Picture 3
Obr 3. s vice venci.jpg, 161kB


The gyroplane can move both in the atmosphere and beyond it, and in the vertical direction as well. Its operation is very economical. It mainly needs energy to accelerate the rotor and for the horizontal movement. It does not need any special take-off pads and it can start from any place.
  Outside the flying device, there is no rotating propeller, and the device can land safely even on places that are not accessible for helicopters, such as dense forest, built-up area and so on.
  When flying into cosmic space, the device first takes off beyond the atmosphere, using a fraction of energy in comparison with rocket propulsion, and then its rocket motors give it the Earth escape velocity. Spinning up of the rim itself can be done on the Earth using external sources, which will save the energy of the device. When taking off, the device will use its own energy to accelerate and maintain rotation and to move horizontally. When returning to the Earth surface, the device will not be slowed down by the air, which would raise its surface temperature dangerously. Its motors will slow down in cosmic space to a slow horizontal velocity and bring the device down vertically to the Earth surface.
  A big advantage of the device is that it can float for a long time in any height from a few metres to hundreds of kilometres. This is allowed by very low energy consumption to maintain the rim rotation.

img004.jpg, 16kB

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